A migrant is a person that’s living outside their country of origin for one year or more. Immigration is becoming a problem globally, involving African and Middle East countries as well as Central and South America, and Mexico i.e. Global Immigration. Large groups of people are moving hysterically from one nation to another all over the world, in search of better resources and better living conditions. Migration is the least understood and the most poorly governed aspect of globalization. There is international agreement for the movement of goods for investment and yet the movement of people remains largely the prerogative of the sovereign nation with little effective cooperation internationally.
Global Immigration Becoming Global Problem
There are 200 million migrants worldwide. That’s 3 percent of the world’s population. About 10 per cent of them are those who are leaving their country under condition of war, political persecution and so forth are classified as refugees. In 2000 according to the UN human development report there were 7.25 million Africans living in Europe, 3.1 million in Asia and 1.24 million in north America. However, just over 13 million Africans had migrated within Africa, mostly from poor countries to nearby ones with a slightly higher standard of living. More than a million Zimbabweans in South Africa for instance sustained starving relatives back home by sending maize flour and cooking oil on Global Immigration.
That same year about 15.5 million Asians lived in Europe, 9.5 million in north America and a million each in Africa and Australia. Fully 35.5 million Asians were migrants within their own continent. Big destinations for workers include Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore, and South Korea. In Europe, the numbers are similar; roughly equal number of European migrants, about one-third million, live in Latin America or Africa. Just over 8 million European migrants live in north America and 8.5 million in Asia and half a million Europeans have migrated within Europe, mostly from east to west and south to north. There are roughly twenty million Latin American migrants in North America and most of them naturally come to work.
South Americans working in north America sent 36 billion dollars home in 2006 and 2007. In the same years, Asians in North America sent just over 30 billion dollars back to Asia while Europeans remitted 17.5 billion dollars and Africans 2.2 billion. Yet remittances do not always reach the poorest countries; in 2008, top five receivers of remittance where India, China, Mexico, the Philippines and Poland all middle-income countries. This is because emigrating is expensive, more citizens will leave as poor country grows richer enriching both the countries they leave and their new homes.
The countries of destination for migrants cover both the developed world, the rich countries, and the developing world. Migration is a more encompassing term than immigration. Migration implies that the movement is not always linear, that it’s not the old paradigm of immigration where an individual with or without his/her family leaves a country of origin, arrives in the country of destination, puts down a permanent residence and becomes a member to simulate into a new society.
Deep Sharan Shrestha
NCIT College, Balkumari, Lalitpur